Way back in 1996 I created this menu for a twelfth night event based on the theme of the Spanish explorers.

Accordingly, each remove covered a different part of the journey. The first was food being eaten in Spain slightly before the Galleon headed West. The recipes are from A Baghdad Cookery Book or Cariadocís compilation of sources. The redactions were worked out either by me while in Cariadocís kitchen in Chicago, or by Richard Perry.


Orange and Onion Salad

Insfanakh Mutajjan

Tabahajah of Lamb


Lemon Sherbet


The Second remove was food being eaten in The New World as described by Spanish visitors.Many of these are dishes that developed after Europeans had lived in Mexico for a while-Cows are not native to Central America, hence no milk. Most of the recipes are modern, from the most historically accurate cookbooks I could find-Diana Kennedyís Cuisines of Mexico being a prime example. The dishes match the descriptions found in Bernard Daizís journals, but other period evidence was sketchily available at the time.


Meat Tamales

Corn Tamales

Frijoles de Olla



The Third remove was food imported back to the Old World. The recipes are either adaptations of contemporary techniques or from sources I no longer remember, although Platina sounds awfully plausible.....


Roast Turkey- We had a turkey carving competition, and it was great fun-the idea was to see who could prepare their tableís turkey most neatly.

Sopa de Calabeza

Bread Bowls-mostly an affectation of mine for nifty serving, Iíll admit.

Paella with Lima Beans

Then we did a round of sweets and served with great fanfare with hot chocolate. The recipes are from

Al-Andalus and more of the forgotten sources. I swear they were really period!






Bibliography, such as it is-

Diaz del Castillo,Bernal. The True History of the Conquest of Mexico. Edited and translated by Albert

Idell. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co, 1957.

Kennedy, Diana. The Cuisines of Mexico. New York: Harper & Roe, 1989


We gathered the recipes into a booklet which we sold for $1.00 at the event.This made it very easy for anyone to check ingredients. Alas, in making the booklet user-friendly for the home cook, I left out info that the serious

SCA cook would want, such as sources. Also, in the ensuing years Iíve gotten more comfortable with sourdough breads (Iím a pastry chef) and have learned a lot more about period ingredients and viable substitutions for them. In the spirit in which we set forth, therefore, pray enjoy eating your way through-



Recipes from Twelfth Night,

January 13th, 1996

Tree-Girt Sea


As assembled and prepared by Rumi Sim elHalzunand the many volunteers of the province kitchens.



Yield: About 2 cups

Murri is one of those recipes that can make a feast truly special. This recipe comes from an Islamic manuscript translated by Charles Perry and redacted by Cariodoc. Using this period ingredient will give your food a more authentic flavor. This recipe is not the original-Mr. Perry states that as the original required rotting barley in the ground for 30 days it is probably not to safe to eat. The murri given here is a period "false" murri, written for those who didn't have a month to watch the barley rot.



Honey 3 Tbl

Bread 1.5 Oz

Flour†† 1 Tbl

Anise seed††† 1 tsp

Fennel seed†† 1 tsp

Celery seed†† 1/2 tsp

Saffron††††††††††† 1/4 tsp

Carob 1/4 oz

Walnuts 1/4 oz

Quince††††††††††† 1 1/2 oz

Salt†††† 1/4 cup

Honey 3 Tbl

Water2 cups

Lemon††††††††††† 1/4 of 1

Bring the first honey to a boil and let cool several times. It should taste scorched. Toast bread until slightly charred and grind in a mortar. Toast anise and fennel and grind with celery seed and walnuts. Quarter and core

quince. Simmer everything together for 2 hours and squeeze pulpin potato ricer or cheesecloth. Add lemon juice to liquid. Add 1/2 cup water to the reside and simmer 1/2-1 hour, squeeze and repeat with another 1/2 cup of water once more.

IMPORTANT NOTE: If making large amounts of murri for an event DO NOT use more than 2 cups of salt.It will make your murri unusable.


Tabahajah of Lamb

Yield: 18 3 oz servings

One of my favorite Medieval Arabic dishes, also translated by Charles Perry.If you know people who hate "period" food, try this on them with out telling them how old the recipe really is.



Murri†† 1 1/2 Cups

Honey 1 Cup

Coriander 2 1/2 Tsp

Cinnamon 1 Tbl

Pepper 1 Tsp

Lamb, cut in thinstrips 5 3/4 Lbs

Oil, 3:1 veg and olive mix 2 Cups

Salt 2 Tsp

Cilantro 1 Oz

Mustard Greens 1 Leaf

Beat Murri and honey in a bowl, add spices and stir well. Add trimmed meat and marinate 1 1/2 hours. Chop herbs. Heat oil in a large pan, add meat and brown. Add marinade and cook until sauce is reduced and honey is starting to crisp on the meat. Sprinkle with chopped herbs on platter. Cook this in batches-you cannot get the nice exterior if the meat is crowded in the pan-and it should be a shallow pan, too.Serve over cous-cous. Cous-cous is a semolina pasta from Morocco and Lebanon. These days you buy it in a box and follow the directions.




Isfanakh Mutajjan

A quick and tasty dish of spinach from A Baghdad Cookery Book. Use "salad cleanedĒ spinach and leave in the stems.

Yield: 4 Servings



Fresh Spinach†††††††††† 20 Oz

Sesame oil 1 Oz

Vegetable oil 1 Oz

Garlic1/2 oz

Cumin, ground 1 tsp

Cinnamon 1/2 tsp

Coriander 1/2 tsp

Rinse spinach and shake dry. Heat oil in pan and sweat garlic. Add spinach and wilt. Add spices, stir well and season to taste.


Bread Bowls

Yield: 60 3 oz bowls

This recipe is scaled for a 20 quart Hobart mixer. To make a batchthat will fit in a Kitchen-aid 5 quart mixer simply divide by 4.


Cracked wheat 1/4 lb

Cracked rye 1/4 lb

Yeast2 oz

Water4 lb (2 quarts)

Whole Wheat Flour 3/4 lb (12 oz)

White Wheat Flour 5 lbs

Salt 2 oz

Egg Wash 3 beaten with 1 Tbl. water


Soak cracked wheat and rye overnight and drain. Mix yeast in warm water in mixer bowl and stir to dissolve.

Add grains, flours and salt(Salt must go in LAST or it will kill the yeast) and mix on lowest speed until all of the flour is incorporated. Mix on speed 2 until dough is smooth and elastic. Place dough in oiled bowl and let rise until doubled in bulk. Punch down and divide into 3 oz rolls. Shape rolls and place on trays. Let rise again, and when doubled in bulk slash each roll 4 times to resemble a pumpkin. Egg wash.Bake at 400, approx. 20-30 minutes. When cooled cut off the tops and scoop out the insides. Let the bowls dry out for at least 1 day before serving soup in them. They can be frozen.


Sopa de Calebeza

Yield: About 1 gallon

I have adapted this soup to use canned pumpkin. If you want to use fresh, simply chop up a pie pumpkin, seed and peel it. Drop the chunks of pumpkin into the stock and let it simmer until tender, then strain,puree the solids in batches and adjust the consistency.You will need 1 1/2 lbs. of peeled pumpkin. Adding some hot soup to the cream is called tempering and helps prevent curdling.



Garlic, Chopped 1/2 oz

Celery, Diced††††††††††† 5 oz

Onion, Diced 6 oz

Leeks, diced3 oz

Butter, Unsalted 1 oz

Canned pumpkin 1 1/2 lbs

Stock (chicken or veg) 1 gallon

Grated ginger††††††††††† 1 tsp

White Wine††† 2 oz

Nutmeg†††††††††† 1 tsp

Heavy Cream††††††††††† 1 Cup

Sautť garlic, celery onions and leeks in butter. Add pumpkin and stir well.Add stock slowly until desired consistency is reached and bring to a simmer.Soak ginger in white wine for 15 minutes and strain. Add wine and nutmeg to soup. Mix some hot soup into the cream and add to the pot. Adjust seasonings to taste. Serve in bread bowls.


Roast Turkey

Yield: 1 16 lb. Turkey


These birds cook on a bed of vegetables which can be used to make a pan gravy. When oven roasting large fowl or cuts of meat an accurate meat thermometer is essential. Stick it into a meaty part of the bird, avoiding bones. The bird is done when the temperature is 140 F. A good instant read thermometer costs under $12.00 and can save lives.



Turkey16 lb Bird

Carrots 6 oz

Celery 6 oz

Onion3 oz

Lemons 3

Whole cloves 15

Egg Yolks 3


Clean turkey, being sure to remove all giblets from both cavities. Chop vegetables into large dice and pile in roasting pan. Stick 5 cloves in each lemon and cut lemons in half. Stuff into turkey. Place bird on bed of vegetables and roast at 425 for 15 minutes. Reduce heat to 350 and roast to an internal temperature of 150. (approx. 4 hours) During last 30 minutes or so glaze with egg yolks for a golden look. Let rest at least 15 minutes before carving.


Lemon Sherbet

Yield: 20 small servings

Sherbets came to Spain through Islam. Cooled drinks were highly popular, and were probably sticky-sweet to our tastes. This is a nice way to expand the period feel of a feast, and can be served either frozen or as a slushy. Since most would be slushy by the time they were all served anyway, we diluted it at a half-frozen state and poured it from pitchers.



Lemon Juice 1 quart

Sugar4 1/2 lbs

Water3 1/2 quarts

Egg whites, lightly whipped4

Combine to sugar and water and heat the mixture to form a syrup. Add the lemon juice and check the flavor. Let the flavored syrup cool completely.Test the syrup density with the floating egg trick-float a raw egg in the syrup. when a nickel-sized patch of egg shows above the surface the density is right. Add water or sugar to adjust if necessary. Add the whipped egg whites and freeze in an ice cream freezer. Store in freezer. At serving time, thaw. When slushy, serve in goblets, diluting to taste.


Orange and Red Onion Salad

Yield: 16 servings


This is a typical sallat of the times, mixing sweet and savory flavors.




Red Onions 1

Calamata Olives 16

Olive oil 2 Tbl

Fresh tarragon 1 Tsp

Salt pinch

Pepper pinch


Peel oranges with a knife, removing inner membrane but leaving orange round.Slice into 8 slices. This will require a VERY SHARP knife or an electric slicer. Peel onion and slice into 16 slices.Chop tarragon.

Arrange orange and onion slices in a decorative fashion on plate or platter.Add olives. Drizzle with olive oil, sprinkle with tarragon, salt and pepper.


Paella with Lima Beans

Yield: 15 Servings

Paella is named for the pan it's cooked in- it resembles a kneecap, or patella. The method of cooking rice also comes to Spain from Islam. This dish is colorful and tasty, and by using a vegetable stock makes a useful vegetarian offering.



Olive Oil 3 oz

Garlic, chopped 1 1/2 oz

Onion12 oz

Red Pepper 12 oz

Green Pepper†††††††††† 12 oz

Rice 2 lbs

Saffron 1 Tbl.

Pepper 1 Tsp

Salt2 Tbl

Vegetable Stock 1 quart

Lima beans 1/2 lb (Fresh or frozen, NOT dried)


Soak saffron in 1/4 cup warm water. In large casserole heat garlic in olive oil until aromatic but not brown.Add vegetables. Add rice,pepper, salt and saffron (with its water) and stir well to coat rice. Add stock and bring to a boil. Cover pan and place in a 400 F.oven for 10 minutes. Add lima beans and return pan to the oven for 10-15 minutes or until done. Adjust seasonings.


Meat Tamales

Yield: 40 Tamales

Tamales were recorded in the writings of Bernard Diaz, a monk who traveled with Cortez during the overthrowof the Aztec Empire. The addition of almonds and raisins is an example of Spanish influence in the New World.


Meat Filling


Pork Shoulder 3 Lb

Onions, Sliced 8 oz

Garlic1 oz

Salt†††† 2 Tsp

Lard††† 3 oz


Whole cloves 5

Cinnamon stick2" piece

Raisins 1/4 cup

Candied Fruit††††††††††† 1 oz

Blanched almonds 1 oz

Tomatoes, peeled 1 1/4 lbs

Cut pork into large cubes, put in large pan with 4 oz onion, 1/2 oz garlic and 2 tsp salt. Cover with cold water and simmer 45 minutes. Let meat cool in the broth. Strain, reserving broth. Chill broth and skim fat, saving fat.

Shred the meat. Melt the lard and the saved fat from the broth and cook 4 oz onion and 1/2 oz garlic. Add the meat and cook for a few minutes. Crush the spices and add them, with the rest of the ingredients and cook a few minutes longer. Mash the tomatoes some and add them to the pan. Cook over a high flame for 10 minutes, stirring constantly. It should be almost dry.


Masa Paste

Masa Harina is a special type of corn meal. It can be found at any Mexican market or at many larger supermarkets



Masa Harina 1 Lb

Salt†††† 2 Tbl

Lard††† 1/2 lb

Chicken stock 1 1/2 Cups

Cold Water††† 1 Cup

Mix the salt into the masa harina. Beat the lard in a mixer for 5 minutes.Gradually add the masa, alternating with the stock beating well after each addition. Test for readiness-put a small piece on the surface of the

water-if it floats its ready.



Corn Husks††† 45

Meat filling††††† 1 batch

Masa paste††† 1 batch

Soak the corn husksuntil soft-usually overnight. Cut 5 husks into long strips 1/8 inch wide. With bottom of husk pointing towards you, spread with paste, leaving a 1/2 inch border. Add a stripe of filling(about 2 oz) in center. Fold husk closed and tie with thin strips. Pack tightly into a steamer and steam for 2 1/2-3 hours.


Corn Tamales

Yield: 20 Tamales

A sweet tamale, these are steamed lying down because the filling is very soft and glops in an ugly way if you steam them vertically



Corn kernels 4 Cups

Water1/2 Cup

Anise seed††† 1 Tbl

Cinnamon††††† 4 Tsp

Masa Harina8 Oz

Brown Sugar8 Oz

Salt†††† 1/4 Tsp

Vegetable shortening†††††††††† 4 Oz

Butter4 Oz

Corn Husks††† 22

Soak the corn husks until soft.

Blend the corn kernels in batches with the water to a rough textured puree. If the blades stick loosen them, but do not add more water. Set aside. Grind the spices to a fine powder, mix with the sugar, salt, masa and corn puree.Melt the butter and shortening over low heat- don't let them get too warm.Stir into the corn mix. You will have a very loose paste. Put about 1 Ĺ tablespoons onto each leaf, fold and tie. Place tamales horizontally in the steamer and cook for 2-3 hours.


Frijoles de Olla

Yield: 10 Servings

These beans are soft and mildly spicy-if you don't like heat use less chili or remove it sooner. Tying the chili in cheesecloth guarantees that all of the seeds will be easily removed.



Pinto Beans†† 1 Lb

Water12 Cups

Onion2 Oz

Bay leaves†††† 2 Each

Ancho Chilies 1 dried pepper

Vegetable Shortening††††††††† 1 Oz

Salt†††† 1 Tbl

Check beans for stones. Put beans in pot and cover with cold water. Add onion, bay leaves, chili pepper and shortening and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer, cover and cook for 1 1/2 hours. DO NOT STIR DURING THIS TIME. Taste beans, and remove chili if spicy enough. Add the salt and simmer another 30 minute or until very soft. Adjust seasonings.


Horchata de Arroz

Yield: 12 Servings

Horchata is another example of Mexican cooking. Its ancestors can be found in Medieval France and Spain, but it traveled well. Rice came to the New World with the Spanish, who brought it from the Philippines.



Rice††† 8 Oz

Cinnamon stick†††††††† 4 Inches

Boiling Water 4 Cups

Cold Water††† 10 Cups

Limes, juiced 1 lime

Cinnamon, ground††† 2 Tsp

Sugar3 1/2 Oz

Put rice and cinnamon stick in a pan and pour the boiling water over them.Let soak until the water is milky. Bring to a boil over medium heat. Reduce heat to a simmer and cook uncovered until the rice is partly softened but not fluffed up, about 15 minutes. Discard the cinnamon stick and let the rice cool, covered. Puree the rice in batches, using a little water if necessary. Force through a medium sieve, using more of the water to rinse it

through. Combine the pureed rice with the lime juice, ground cinnamon and sugar to taste.Thin with water to the consistency of heavy cream. Add more lime juice or cinnamon if desired. Chill well or serve over ice.



Yield: 36

A crispy fritter dusted with powdered sugar, Rosettes can be fried the night before being served but they don't freeze well.



Eggs†† 2

Salt†††† 1/4 Tsp

Sugar1 Tbl

Butter1 Oz

All Purpose Flour††††† 4 Oz

Milk†††† 1 Cup

Oil for frying††† 4 Cups

Mix eggs with salt and sugar. Melt butter and mix with milk. Stirflour and milk into eggs in alternating batches. Let rest in refrigerator for at least 2 hours. Heat oil to 375. Heat iron in oil, dip in batter (dip to just below the top of the iron, or the rosette won't slip off) and return to oil. The rosette should slip off of the iron. When golden brown, remove and drain. Just before serving dust with powered sugar.



Yield: 32 slices

An excellent example of period baking in the Arabic world, this is another dish translated by Charles Perry. We owe the man several votes of thanks. Rosewater can be powerful, so go gently with it until you know your idea of enough. It can be found in Indian markets and some large supermarkets.




Blanched Almonds††† 14 Oz

All Purpose Flour††††† 1 1/2 Lbs

Sugar6 Oz

Rosewater†††† 2 Tbl

Water3/4 Cup

Sugar10.5 Oz

Soak almondsovernight in water to cover. Mix the flour, first sugar, water and rosewater into a stiff but not dry dough. Cover dough. Drain almonds and coarse grind with second sugar. Roll dough into thin sheets,spread with almond fill in roll up, sealing edges with water. Bake in a 300 oven for 30 minutes or until light brown. SLICE WHILE WARM! into 1" slices.



Yield: 12

The trick in this is to caramelize the sugar with burning it. Mix a few drops of lemon juice with the sugar and melt 1/4 of it, then add another 1/4, and so on. Use a heavy bottomed pan. When it's a deep amber color remove it from the heat and pour it into an oiled Pyrex measuring cup to stop the cooking. If it gets too cold to pour, warm

it either in a microwave or pan of boiling water.



Sugar10 1/2 Oz

Milk†††† 2 Quarts

Sugar7 Oz

Cinnamon, ground††† 1 1/2 Tsp

Vanilla bean†† 3 inch piece

Salt†††† 1/4 Tsp

Eggs, whole†† 8

Egg yolks†††††† 12

Butter 12 4 oz molds. Caramelize the first sugar and pour into each mold enough to cover the bottom in a thin layer, about 2 tablespoons. Heat the milk, second sugar, cinnamon, salt and vanilla bean and let simmer for 15

minutes. Let cool. Beat eggs and egg yolks together, add to the cooled milk and mix well. Strain through cheesecloth. Pour into the prepared molds and bake in a water bath at 350 for 1 hour or until stiff but not cracked. Chill overnight. Warm molds in hot water bath and turn out onto small plates. The caramel will form a thin sauce.



Yield: 30 pieces

Hais is a great, not too sweet munchie or dessert. It works really well as war food, since it requires no refrigeration. When making lots it's nice to have a crew to work with.



Bread crumbs††††††††††† 5 1/3 Cups

Dates, pitted1 Lb

Ground Almonds†††††† 3 Oz

Pistachios, shelled, raw†††††† 5 Oz

Butter, unsalted, melted††††††† 6 Oz

Sugar7 Oz

Grind the bread crumbs, dates and nuts in a food processor. While running add the melted butter until the mixture hangs together in a paste. Roll into small balls and roll in sugar.